Prime Minister Youth Program Loan Scheme 2013

Prime Minister of Pakistan Mian Muhammad Nawaz Sharif has announced Small Business Loans Scheme for unemployed educated youth to establish new enterprises across Pakistan. 100,000 loans would be disbursed under the scheme..

Prime-Minister-Small-Business-Loans-Scheme-2013

How To Apply and Registration Process

You can apply in PM’s Scheme for Small Business Loans Scheme as per eligibility criteriamentioned below. The federal cabinet has already given approval to all these initiatives.

All arrangements for the implementation of these programs have been completed. TheSmall Business Loans program will be completely on merit basis and transparent.

Therefore only eligible people should apply for this program. Government of Pakistan will announce the registration procedure with application forms after November 2013 and beregistered soon.

Eligibility criteria:

An individual, male or female, of age not more than 35 years and has an entrepreneurial potential is eligible to apply for the scheme.

Focus on women:

It is believed that increased economic participation by women can play a significant role in national development. In an attempt to encourage the same, 50% of loans will be given to female borrowers.

In addition, independent economic activity will empower Pakistani women both socially and in terms of finances.

Debt-Equity ratio:

A 90:10 debt-equity ratio would be followed with tenor of up to 7 years.

Pricing:

It is fixed at 8% for the borrower. However, the difference in the cost will be paid by the Federal Government at KIBOR+500 bps.

Refinancing:

The State Bank of Pakistan shall explore providing 50% refinance at the risk of participating banks.

Risk mitigation:

Government will share 50% of losses subject to a maximum of 10% of the loan amount.

Number of Loans:

100,000 loans would be disbursed under the scheme.

Size of Loan:

The amount of each loan can range from Rs.0.5 million to Rs 2.0 million.

Average Loan Size:

The average loan size would be Rs.1.25 million.

Allocation in Budget 2013-14:

Rs.5 billion have been allocated in the budget for the financial year 2013-2014.

Executing agency:

In the initial phase of the scheme, the National Bank of Punjab and First Women Bank would act as the executing agencies of the scheme under the guidance and supervision of the State Bank of Pakistan. Other Banks will be encouraged to join.

Sectors and Products:

The scheme encompasses all sectors of the economy. Standardized schemes,projects, undertakings will be designed by SMEDA. Additionally, projects designed by private sector service providers and individuals are included in the scope of the scheme.

HOW TO APPLY

You can apply in PM’s Scheme for Provision of Qarz e Hasna as per eligibility criteria mentioned below. The federal cabinet has already given approval to all these initiatives.

Therefore only eligible candidates should apply for this program.

Prime Ministry Youth Program Loan Scheme Application Form (Coming Soon) 

kaun samjhe…

Kon Samjhay

یہ جولائی 2009 کی بات ہے۔ میں بہاولنگر کے مضافات میں موروثی بیماریوں پر ریسرچ کے سلسلے میں فیلڈ میں کام کررہاتھا کہ اطلاع ملی کہ ایک گھر میں دو بھائی اور ایک بہن ذہنی معذوری میں مبتلا ہیں۔ میں اُس محلے میں پہنچا تو پڑوسیوں نے بتایا کہ لڑکے آس پاس کہیں گھومتے پھرتے مل جائیں گے جبکہ لڑکی کو گھر میں زنجیروں سے باندھا جاتا ہے سو گھر میں مل جائیگی۔ میں نے اُس وقت تک ایسی خبریں ٹی وی پر ہی دیکھی تھیں۔ گھر میں داخل ہوتے ہی مجھے صحن میں ایک چارپائی کیساتھ زنجیروں سے بندھی ہوئی چھوٹے سر والی ایک لڑکی نظر آگئی (مقامی لوگ ایسے مریضوں کو دولے شاہ کے چوہے یا شاہ دولے کہتے ہیں)۔

میں فورا” لڑکی کیطرف بڑھا، لیکن ابھی میں نے زنجیر کو ہاتھ لگایا ہی تھا کہ ایک خاتون جھٹ سے سامنے آکھڑی ہوئیں اور غصے سے مجھے گھورنے لگیں۔ میں اُسے نظرانداز کرکے زنجیر کھولنے کیلئے جھکا تو اُس نے مجھے کاندھوں سے پکڑکر پیچھے دھکیل دیا۔

“کیسے لوگ ہو تُم؟ احساس ہی نہیں کہ اس بیچاری پر کیا گُزر رہی ہے”، میں نے غُصے سے کہا۔

وہ جواب میں تقریبا” چیخ اُٹھی، “اِسے تُم نے نہیں میں نے جنم دیا ہے، اس لئے مُجھے تم سے زیادہ احساس ہے اِس کا”۔

“عجیب ماں ہو تُم، اپنی ہی بیٹی کو جانوروں کیطرح باندھا ہوا ہے”

اُس نے میری آنکھوں میں آنکھیں ڈالیں اور دانت پیستے ہوئے بولی، “اسلئے کہ اگر میں اِسے جانوروں کی طرح نہ باندھوں، تو جانور اِسے بھنبھوڑ ڈالتے ہیں”۔

وہ اپنی رو میں بولتی گئی۔ خالص دیہاتی پنجابی مجھے بھی پوری طرح سمجھ نہیں آتی لیکن اُس کی باتوں کا جو مفہوم میری سمجھ میں آیا وہ یہ تھا کہ اگرچہ وہ لڑکی ذہنی طور پر معذور تھی لیکن بے ضرر تھی۔ کچھ عرصہ قبل چند لڑکوں نے کھیتوں میں لے جاکر اُسے اپنی ہوس کا نشانہ بنایا۔ معصوم لڑکی کو نہ کسی بات کا ہوش نہ احساس۔ اپنے کپڑے ہاتھوں میں تھامے جب وہ گھر واپس آرہی تھی تو محلے کے نوجون اور بچے اُس پر آوازے کستے رہے۔ بات کرتے کرتے وہ رو پڑی۔

“تُمہیں بڑا احساس ہے ناں اس کا۔ تو جاؤ اور اُن درندوں سے پُوچھو کہ اُنہیں اپنی ہوس پوری کرنے کیلئے میری بے زبان بچی ہی ملی تھی”۔

میں بوجھل دل کیساتھ وہاں سے نکلا تو پہلی بار مجھے احساس ہوا کہ نیوز کاسٹرز جب زنجیروں میں جکڑی کسی لڑکی کی خبر دیتے ہیں تو اُن کے لعن طعن کا نشانہ “سنگدل ماں باپ” ہوتے ہیں۔ وہ وحشی درندے جو ان والدین کے موم جیسے دلوں کو پتھر میں بدل دیتے ہیں، خبر میں کہیں نہیں ہوتے۔

آج کل جب لاہور اور فیصل آباد میں کمسن بچیوں سے جنسی زیادتی کی خبریں مسلسل نیوز چینلز پر چل رہی ہیں، تو مجھے وہ زنجیر بپا لڑکی بُری طرح یاد آرہی ہے۔ اس ملک میں مردوں کی سرشت میں وہ درندگی شامل ہوگئی ہے کہ اُن کی ہوس کے سامنے معصوم بچوں کا بچپنا اور شاہ دولوں کی معذوری بھی رُکاوٹ نہیں بنتی۔

کاش کہ جنسی زیادتی پر عورت کے بجائے مرد کا پیٹ پُھولتا۔

وہ میڈیا جس نے کفار کی فنڈنگ پر فحاشی پھیلا پھیلا کر قوم کا حال یہاں تک پہنچا دیا ہے۔
اسلامی سزاؤں کو ظلم کہتا ہے تو مجھے شدید غصہ آتا ہے۔
جب اسلامی سزائیں دی جانے لگیں گی۔
جب زانی کو سنگسار کیا جائیگا۔
جب ڈکیت کو عوام کے سامنے لٹکایا جائیگا۔
جب چور کے ہاتھ کاٹے جائینگے
تو دیکھینگے کون زنا کریگا اور کون چوری۔
لیکن یہاں تو لوگوں کو اسلام کی سزائیں ظلم لگتی ہیں۔
جبکہ اسلام جتنا پر امن معاشرہ چاہتا ہے اتنا امن کسی اور مذہب میں نہیں ہے۔
لیکن سمجھے کون!!!!

Practical Tips For Improving Your English

70 ways to improve your English

70 ways to improve your English

Start your own English language blog.  Even for people who don’t have to write in English, writing can be a great way of properly learning the kind of vocabulary you need to describe your own life and interests, and of thinking about how to stop making grammar mistakes. The problem most people have is that they don’t know what to write about. One traditional way to make sure you write every day in English is to write an English diary (journal), and a more up to date way of doing this is to write a blog. Popular topics include your language learning experience, your experience studying abroad, your local area, your language, or translations of your local news into English.

Write a news diary.  Another daily writing task that can work for people who would be bored by writing about their own routines in a diary is to write about the news that you read and listen to everyday. If you include your predictions for how you think the story will develop (e.g. “I think Hillary will become president”), this can give you a good reason to read old entries another time, at which time you can also correct and mistakes you have made and generally improve what you have written.

Sign up for a regular English tip.  Some websites offer a weekly or even daily short English lesson sent to your email account. If your mobile phone has an e-mail address, it is also possible to have the tips sent to your phone to read on the way to work or school. Please note, however, that such services are not usually graded very well to the levels of different students, and they should be used as a little added extra or revision in your English studies rather than as a replacement for something you or your teacher have chosen more carefully as what you need to learn.

Listen to MP3s.  Although buying music on the internet is becoming more popular in many countries, not so many people know that you can download speech radio such as audio books (an actor reading out a novel) and speech radio. Not only is this better practice for your English than listening to English music, from sources like Scientific American, BBC and Australia’s ABC Radio it is also free.

Listen to English music.  Even listening to music while doing something else can help a little for things like getting used to the natural rhythm and tone of English speech, although the more time and attention you give to a song the more you will learn from listening to it again in the future.

Read the lyrics to a song.  Although just listening to a song in English can be a good way of really learning the words of the chorus in an easily memorable way, if you want to really get something out of listening to English music you will need to take some time to read the lyrics of the song with a dictionary. If the lyrics are not given in the CD booklet, you may be able to find them on the internet, but please note that some lyrics sites deliberately put a few errors into their lyrics for copyright reasons. Once you have read and understood the lyrics,  if you then listen and read at the same time, this can be a good way of understanding how sounds change in fast, natural, informal speech.

Sing karaoke in English.  The next stage after understanding and memorizing a song is obviously to sing it. Although some words have their pronunciation changed completely to fit in with a song, most of the words have the same sounds and stressed syllables as in normal speech. Remembering which words rhyme at the end of each line can also be a good way of starting to learn English pronunciation.

Write a film, music, hotel or book review.  Another motivating and easy way to make yourself write in English is to write a review for a site such as Amazon or Internet Movie Database. Many non-native speakers write reviews on sites like this, and if you have some special understanding of the book, music or film due to your first language or knowing the artist personally, that would be very interesting for the English speakers who read and write reviews on the site.

Only search in English.  Switching your search engine to the English language version of msn, yahoo, Google etc. can not only be a good way of practicing fast reading for specific information in English, but could also give you a wider choice of sites to choose from and give you an idea of what foreigners are writing about your country and area.

Read a book you’ve already read or seen the movie of in your own language.  Although most language learners under Advanced level would probably learn more from reading a graded reader or something from the internet than they would from reading an original book written for English speakers, for some people reading something like Harry Potter in the original can be a great motivator to improve their English. To make this easier for you and make sure that it motivates you rather than just making your tired, try reading a book that you already know the story of. This not only makes it easier to understand and guess vocabulary, but you are also more likely to remember the language in it. If you have not read the book before, reading a plot summary from the internet can also help in the same way.

Read a translation into English.  Another way of making sure books are easier to understand is to choose a book that was originally translated into English, preferably from your own language. Even if you haven’t read the book in your own language, you will find the English is written in a slightly simplified way that is more similar to how your own language is written than a book originally written in English would be.

Skip the first ten pages.  If you have given up with a book in English or are reading it very slowly, try skimming through the first ten pages or skipping them completely. The start of most books tend to be mainly description and are therefore full of difficult vocabulary and don’t have a clear story line yet to help you understand what is happening and to motivate you to turn the next page. If the book is still too difficult even after the introductionary part is finished, it is probably time to give that book up for now and try it again after you have read some easier things.

Read a book with lots of dialogue. Opening up books before you buy one and flicking through them to find one with lots of direct dialogue in it has several advantages. If there is less text on the page due to all the speech marks etc, this can make it easier to read and easier to write translations on. Dialogue is also much easier to understand than descriptive parts of a book, and is much more like the language you will want to learn in order to be able to speak English.

Read English language comics.  Even more than books with lots of dialogue, comics can be easy to understand and full of idiomatic language as it is actually spoken. There can be difficulties with slang, difficult to understand jokes and/ or dialogue written how people speak rather than with normal spellings, so try to choose which comic carefully. Usually, serious or adventure comics are easier to understand than funny ones.

Read English language entertainment guides.  Nowadays most big cities in the world have an English language magazine and/ or online guide to the movies, plays, exhibitions that are on in the city that week. Reading this in English is not only good value, but it could also guide you to places that English speakers are interested in and where you might hear some English spoken around you.

Read English language magazines.  Like books, if you can read two versions of the same magazine (Newsweek in your language and in English, for example), that could make understanding it much easier.

Take a one week intensive course.  Although you cannot expect to come out of a very short course speaking much better English than when you started it, if you continue studying a little over the following weeks and months, the knowledge you gained then will gradually come out and mean that your level of speaking, listening etc. are better than they would have been if you hadn’t taken that course. This positive effect can still be true up to a year later.

Follow your intensive course up with an extensive course.  The more time you can spend studying English the better, but studying periodic intensive courses with a few hours of study a week in between is probably better value for money than any other system as it gives your brain time to subconsciously learn and start using the new language you have learnt before you introduce the next new “chunk” of language.

Supplement your group class with a one to one class.  Another good way to combine two different kinds of classes is to study both in a group class and one to one. Having a one to one teacher, even if just a couple of times a month, will mean that you can be taught exactly the language that you need, that you will have more time to speak, and that you can have as much error correction as you like.

Supplement your one to one class with a group class.  The benefits of having a group class are often less clear to students, but they include the fact that you will learn to deal with several people speaking at once, have a chance to practice skills such as interrupting people, and will hear a range of different viewpoints and topics.

Teach your children or friends some English.  Recent research has shown that elder children tend to be a couple of IQ points above their younger siblings, and the most likely reason is that explaining things to their little brothers and sisters gives them an intellectual boost. In the same way, teaching someone lower level than you the English you already know is a great way of permanently fixing that knowledge in your own brain.

Ask your company to start English lessons.  Even if you don’t need to speak English at work, English lessons can be a fun and reasonably priced way for your company to spend their training budget in a popular way.

Have English radio on in the background while you are doing your housework.  Even if you are not listening carefully, it will help you get a feel for natural English rhythm and intonation.

Play English language learning games on your Nintendo DS.  Although such games can have quite random language and are unlikely to improve your ability to speak English on their own, the next time you hear or read the same language elsewhere it will be really fixed in your brain by the fact you have played a game with it in already. It is also a nice way of taking a break from your other English studies while also doing some English. To make sure it really is a break and to avoid wasting time learning language from the game that is not much used in daily life, don’t bother writing down any new language you see in the game, but just try to learn it from playing the game again.

Say or think what you are doing in English as you do your daily tasks.  As you are doing your chores, try creating sentences describing what you are doing, e.g. ‘I am unscrewing the ketchup bottle cap’. This gets you used to thinking in English without translating, and can be a good way of seeing what simple vocabulary that is around you everyday you don’t know. yet

Watch English language films with English subtitles.  For people who can’t understand a film without subtitles but find themselves not listening at all when reading subtitles in their own language, this should be the way of watching a film that you should aim for. If it is too difficult to watch the whole film this way, try watching the (usually important) first 10 or 15 minutes of the film with subtitles in your own language, switch to English subtitles after that, and only switch back to subtitles in your own language if you get totally lost following the story of the film.

Watch films in your language with English subtitles.  If you are finding English films with English subtitles too difficult or you can’t find English films with English subtitles in your local video shop, this is a good second best option. Looking for local films with English subtitles can also sometimes be a good sign of quality, as it means the producers of the film are expecting it to be popular internationally as well.

Watch English films with subtitles in your language.  Again, this is not as good practice as English language films with English subtitles, but is more relaxing, can be easier to find suitable DVDs for, and is also possible with VHS.

Watch the same film or TV episode over and over again.  This can not only save you money on DVDs, but will mean that you can really learn the language without having to study it. Some comedies can also get funnier the more you watch them, especially if you watch them with no subtitles and so understand a little more each time you watch it.

Be realistic about your level.  One thing that holds many language learners back is actually trying too hard and tackling something that their brain is not ready for yet. Checking your level with a level check test on the internet, by taking an English language test (FCE, CAE, IELTS, TOEIC, TOEFL etc.), or by taking a free trial level check and/ or lesson in a language school will help you find out what your level is and so choose suitable self-study materials.

Be realistic about your reading level.  Most researchers agree that people learn most when reading something they understand almost all of. If there are one or two words per page that you have never seen before, that is about the right level. If there are three or more on every page, you should switch to something easier and come back later.

Read graded readers (= easy readers).  These are books that are especially written for language learners like you, e.g. Penguin Readers. Although it can be difficult to find something as interesting as things written in newspapers or on the internet, in terms of learning the language only people who need to read for their work or an exam usually gain more from reading things written for graded readers. Graded readers of classic books like Charles Dickens also have the benefit of giving you a lot of knowledge about the literature, and culture more generally, of English speaking countries in a short time.

Read the whole thing with no help.  Although using a dictionary has been shown to help with both short term and long term learning of vocabulary, the fact that using it slows reading down can stop some people reading in English at all. Reading a whole book quickly through just for pleasure from time to time will help you remember how fun reading in another language can be.

Read and learn everything.  At the opposite extreme, it can be hard work but very satisfying to get to the end of a book knowing that you have learnt every word in it. See other tips on this page to make sure it is a book that is easy enough to do this with and to ensure that the vocabulary you learn is useful.

Watching English children’s films or TV programmes.  Although some of the vocabulary you can learn from things made for children can be a bit strange (lots of animal names and maybe animal noises, including baby names for things), the fact that not only the language but the structure of the story is simplified can make it an easy and motivating thing to watch. Like good language learning materials, the same language is also often repeated to make it memorable, and the use of catchy songs etc. can increase this positive effect on your memory.

Read English children’s books.  This is very similar to watching English children’s movies, but with the added advantage of there being more illustrations than adult books, which both helps you to understand the story and makes the page brighter and more motivating to read.

Keep a list of language to learn, e.g. a vocab list.  Even if you don’t often find time to go though your vocab list and it keeps on building up, just the act of choosing which words you need to learn and writing them down on a special list can help you learn them.

Go through your vocab list several times every day.  If a ticking off word on a vocabulary list on the train to work is inconvenient or embarrassing for you, you can keep your list of words to learn as an entry in your electronic dictionary, as a mobile phone to do list or as a text file in your MP3 player (e.g. iPod). Although the time spent transferring the information between different formats like these may seem wasted, in fact any time you spend using the vocabulary like this will help you learn it.

Convert your vocab list to English only.  One way to stop yourself translating and therefore increase your speed of comprehension and production is to learn all your vocabulary without the use of your own first language. Ways you can write a vocab list in only English include with synonyms (words with the same meaning, e.g. “tall” and “high”); with opposites (“high” and “low”); with pronunciation factors such as number of syllables (the number of beats, e.g. three for “de- ci- sion”) and the word stress (the syllable that is pronounced louder and longer, e.g. the second syllable in “baNAna”); and gapped sentences (e.g. “I am not _________________ in science fiction” for the word “interested”).

Cross out and delete.  Crossing out or deleting words, sentences or whole pages that you have learnt can be a great motivator, and save your list of things to learn becoming too big to handle.

Throw everything away and start again.  One of the things that can put most people off learning is a stack of half finished books or a huge list vocabulary waiting to be learnt. Simply getting rid of all that and starting again with something new from zero can be a great motivator and get your studies underway again.

Label things in your house or office with post-its.  The easiest vocabulary to learn is the vocabulary of things you see and use everyday. If you can write the names of things around you on slips of paper and stick them on the real thing, this is a great way of learning useful vocabulary. If you can leave them there over the following days and weeks, this is a very easy way of revising the vocabulary until it is properly learnt.

Label a drawing.  For people who can’t put labels on real things, the next best option is to take a photo of a real place in your life like your office, print it out, and then draw lines to all of the things you can see in the picture and label them in English with the help of a dictionary. You can do the same thing with places you pass through everyday like the station. Because you will see the same thing again and again, it should be easy to really learn the words for those things.

Keep a diary in English.  This is a popular method of making sure you use English everyday for people who don’t often speak English and can’t think of things to write about. The fact that you are writing about real things that have happened to you means that any words you look up in the dictionary will be vocabulary that is useful for you and easy to learn.

Online Chat.  The closest thing to speaking for people who don’t have the chance to speak English is online chat, as you have to think and respond quickly, and the language is short and informal just like speech.

Listen to the radio news in English.  You can make this easier by reading the news in English first, or even just by reading or listening to the news in your own language.

Read an English language newspaper.  Freebie newspapers like “Metro” in London are usually the easiest to understand, followed by mid-brow titles like “The Daily Express” or “The Daily Mail” in English. Popular newspapers like “The Sun” are more difficult because of the idiomatic, slangy use of language and the number of jokes in the headlines and articles.

Write fiction in English, e.g. short stories.  For people who find writing a diary about things that happen to them everyday boring, the best thing is to let your imagination go and write about whatever comes into your head. The advantage of this is that if you can’t think of how to say something in English, you can just change the story to something that is easier to explain. Perhaps the easiest way to start writing fiction in English is with a diary, changing any details you like to make it more interesting and adding more and more fantasy as the weeks goes on.

English language exercise videos. This is quite similar to how babies learn, by listening, watching and copying. It is also good for your health!

Learn a famous speech or poem in English by heart.  Although you may never hear or get the chance to say exactly that line, having one memorable example of English grammatical form in your head can make it much easier to learn other examples of the same grammar as you hear them. It is also something you can practice over and over without being as boring as grammatical drills.

Get tipsy (= a little drunk) before speaking English.  This can not only improve your fluency while you are drinking, but can also improve your confidence in future days and weeks by showing you that you can communicate what you want to say.

Use a dictionary while you are watching a movie.  Films often have the same words many times, so if you look up important words the first or second time you hear them; you should have learnt them by the end of the film. It is easier to use a dictionary if you watch with English subtitles.

Learn and use the phonemic script.  Although there are many sounds in English, there are even more spellings. By learning the phonemic script and writing vocabulary down with it, you can both add another stage to your vocabulary learning that should help you learn it more thoroughly, and improve your pronunciation. It can also make things easier for you by stopping you trying to pronounce different spellings of the same pronunciation different ways.

Learn some spelling rules.  Many people think that English spelling is random, but in fact most words follow some kind of rule, e.g. the “magic E” that changes the pronunciation of “mad” and “made”.

Record your own voice.  For people who don’t have much or any correction of pronunciation from a teacher, recording yourself and listening back makes it easier to hear whether you are really making the English sounds that you are trying to or not.

Use computer pronunciation analysis.  Although most programmes that claim to tell you when you are pronouncing correctly or not don’t actually do that, listening many times and seeing how your voice changes as you try to match the sounds and waveform given by a pronunciation CD ROM can be good practice and more motivating than just recording your own voice.

Learn as many words as you can of one category, e.g. animal words.  Learning similar words together can both expand your overall vocabulary and make them easier to learn by forming links between the words in your brain.

Take holidays abroad.  This is not only a good opportunity to speak English in situations where you really have to make yourself understood in order to live, but it is also a good motivator to study English seriously in the weeks and months before your trip. If possible, also try to use English even when you could use your own language, e.g. when you pick a guided tour of a museum or historic place or when you book a flight on the internet, and try to avoid package tours.

Draw pictures of the words you want to learn.  Especially if you are artistic, this can be a better way of learning vocabulary than writing translations or example sentences.

Find a foreign boyfriend or girlfriend.  No tips on how to do this here, but everyone agrees that getting or even just looking for a date in English can be a great motivator to improve your language skills.

Arrange a conversation exchange.  Swapping lessons and conversation with someone who wants to learn your language can be a good alternative for those who aren’t looking for romance, or can sometimes lead onto dating for those who are!

Sign up for an English language exam.  Even if you don’t need to take an exam and don’t want to or can’t take a special course to study for it, paying to take an exam like TOEFL, TOEIC, IELTS or FCE can really motivate you take your English studies seriously.

Model your accent on one particular actor.  e.g. try to speak like Robert De Niro. Students who say they want to sound more like a native speaker have the problem that native speakers don’t sound all that much like each other. Choosing one model can make the task of improving your pronunciation more clear, and is quite fun. Doing an impression of that person also makes a good party trick.

Use an English-English dictionary. Trying to use a bilingual dictionary less and switching to a monolingual one can help you to stop translating in you head when you are speaking or listening, and other useful English vocabulary can come up while you are using the dictionary.

Occasionally talk to or e-mail your friends in English.  Many people find this a bit false or embarrassing, but if you think of it as a study club and set a particular time and/ or place, it is no different from studying math’s together.

Go to an English or Irish pub.  As well as having a menu in English and being a good way of finding out something about the culture of English speaking countries, you might also find there are free English language listings magazines, English language sports on the TV and/ or foreign people you can speak to.

Buy a speaking electronic dictionary.  Although most electronic dictionaries are not as good as paper ones for the amount of information they give you about each word, some of them have the very useful function of saying the word with the correct pronunciation.

Learn your electronic dictionary vocabulary list.  Most electronic dictionaries also have a button which you can push to see the last 30 or more words you looked up. By deleting words you decide are useless or you have already learnt from this list, you can use it as a “to do list” of words to learn that you can look at several times a day in the train etc.

Switch operating system to English.  Changing the operating language of your mobile phone, video recorder etc. to English can be an easy way of making sure you use the language everyday.

Set goals.  Deciding how many hours you want to study, how many words you want to learn or what score you want to get in a test are all good ways of making sure you do extra study.

Memogate Scandal: How BlackBerry Set Works

blackberry Memogate Scandal: How BlackBerry Set Works

WOODBRIDGE, VA: As the memogate commission issued notices to various parties in the memogate investigation in Islamabad on Monday it will not be the testimony of ex-ambassador Husain Haqqani or the contents of the affidavit of former US national security adviser Gen James Jones or even the in-person testimony of American businessman Mansoor Ijaz that would matter.

It will be the forensic analysis of telephone records, e-mail exchanges and BlackBerry chats
that allegedly took place between Ijaz and Haqqani from May 9 to May 11. Phone records will be the easiest to ascertain and provide direct evidence and confirmation. But for most Pakistanis, the internal workings of a BlackBerry device are not that well understood. The forensic testing of Ijaz’s devices, which apparently still hold the original exchanges with Haqqani, and the ability to retrieve such data independently from Research In Motion Limited (RIM), the maker of BlackBerry devices, will be the key determining factor in whether memogate is consigned to the dustbin of history or is the hammer that nails the coffin shut of those who stand accused of committing such heinous crimes against the state.

Every BlackBerry device has a unique identifier called a PIN CODE. This PIN is an eight-digit alphanumeric which registers a particular handset for use on the RIM servers so that any user can reach any other user of BB services for minimal monthly cost.

Messages sent by BB Messenger are encrypted and cannot be seen by others in real time. Every BlackBerry device has a PIN, exactly like a fingerprint identifying the DNA of that particular handset. BBs are the device of choice among the professional class because a BlackBerry handset can exchange not only secure, encrypted chats between its users, but can also receive and send e-mails, SMS, MMS in addition to being utilized as a normal telephone.

BBs have the added feature of a PIN message that shows up in bright red font on a BB screen, that is only seen between two users chatting with each other (like a highly encrypted e-mail message from one mailbox to another). PIN messages appeared in the list of exchanges between Ijaz and Haqqani, according to Ijaz’s SC statement.

In the memogate case, some complex issues arise if there was an intent on the part of one or the other, or even both, protagonists (Ijaz and Haqqani) to delete, erase or modify the data in their handsets. Let’s start with what we know.

Ijaz has made publicly available 31 screen shots of his BB handset as part of his witness statement to the SC. If those screen shots reflect real data, then his handset holds sufficient evidence to be forensically examined and demonstrate that those conversations he claims took place between him and Haqqani were in fact real. Why so? Because Ijaz’s PIN is verifiable as belonging to him, and the incoming messages would have to have been received by the sender’s PIN, which is also recorded in Ijaz’s handset.

The harder part will be to ascertain whether the PIN associated with incoming BB messages sent to Ijaz’s device belonged to a handset used by Haqqani. The PIN is unique to the handset. The SIM card (and therefore the phone number that belongs to that particular SIM card) is not.

A SIM card for a telephone number belonging to Haqqani could theoretically be installed in a different handset than the one he was sending his BB chats from. Once used for the purpose intended, he could discard that BB handset, never to be seen again, and only RIM could confirm using Ijaz’s handset whether the chats did take place or not.

If, on the other hand, Haqqani used one of his two normal phone numbers to send BB chats to Ijaz (one issued for official use as ambassador – a 202 number, and one privately kept by Haqqani – a 617 number from his old days in Boston University’s employ that he used for non-government work), then RIM would have evidence of which SIM card, and therefore telephone number, was used to transmit the BB chats by that specific PIN code.

Commission investigators will have a tough time getting to the bottom of what phones Haqqani did or did not actually use.

He will have to be asked to produce the two handsets that had the PIN numbers disclosed by Ijaz as belonging to Haqqani on the days in May and in October/November when they allegedly exchanged large numbers of chat messages.

If he refuses, or cannot because the devices have been disposed of, the only other certain way to ascertain whether Haqqani sent the messages would be an unlikely confession or a Commission subpoena of data from RIM. This is being apparently done by the Commission. It may be hard to get but possible.

One other possibility exists. RIM could be subpoenaed to hand over all messages associated with the PIN codes allegedly used by Haqqani. Those messages would then identify PIN codes other than Ijaz’s, which would then confirm that Haqqani was in fact the sender because his chat list of contacts would be unique to him, and the PIN codes of others with whom he communicated could not be set aside so easily.

If history is any guide, the Commission will have its work cut out to demand anything from BB maker RIM. In August 2011, as youthful rioters were blackening the streets of Britain in a dramatic popular uprising, BBs were the communication tool of choice. As police work started and arrests were made, RIM pre-empted a move by Metropolitan Police authorities to get ahead of an onslaught of subpoenas by tweeting at the time: “We feel for those impacted by the riots in London. We have engaged with the authorities to assist in any way we can.”

With RIM’s cooperation, police would have been able to read and record in real time encrypted BBM messages between riot conspirators, pinpointing individuals and building evidence against them for use in court. Unlike the use of publicly available communication tools such as Facebook and Twitter during the “Arab Spring” uprisings, BB’s prominence as a person-to-person technology whose encrypted messages cannot be monitored in real time posed a great barrier to the police trying to stop Britain’s riots.

While privacy advocates may have come down on RIM for invasion of privacy with its offer to assist British police, the larger problem was, and for the memogate commission’s forensic investigators is, posed by Britain’s Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act. Its stringent provisions for protecting user rights would make it nearly impossible without long court battles to obtain RIM data even on national security grounds.

One way to resolve the legality issue and avoid subpoenas, etc would be for the commission to ask Ijaz, who has publicly committed his unfettered support to the investigation, to authorize RIM to release his records so that one side of this two-party equation is known with absolute certainty.

If the RIM-provided evidence shows that the telephone numbers (i.e., SIM card data) which conveyed BB chats received on his device belonged to Haqqani, the case is solved and the results are known with 100 pc accuracy regardless of whether Haqqani makes a single device or PIN or anything available to the Commission.

The Commission’s investigators will then have to make sure the SIM card data for BB chats verified by access to Ijaz’s handset is the same as it was then, that Haqqani did not somehow report his phones as lost or stolen only to bring his telephone numbers up on different SIM cards.

As a desperate act of last resort, is it possible that BB chat exchanges could be created, existing ones distorted or modified, or even permanently deleted from RIM servers?

Experts interviewed for this article said all were possible, but highly unlikely given the stakes of being discovered as evidence tampering.

Modification software on a device or computer holding backup records is easily detected and determined as to load time and keystrokes. Permanent deletion or any other manipulation of records on RIM’s servers would imply very high level complicity at a government and legal/judiciary level.

And if found out, would paralyse not just Pakistan, but also perhaps the US and UK governments as well.

RIM’s encrypted communications have ruffled feathers, particularly in repressive governments interested in stopping unwanted political speech. Several countries in the Middle East, including Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, threatened to ban BlackBerry services altogether if RIM didn’t give them access to BB chat exchanges, ostensibly for “counter-terrorism purposes”.
RIM reportedly agreed to provide access after a drawn out battle – time that the Pakistan Memogate Commission simply does not have.

via, thenews

The Top Eight Job Search Engines

If you are in search of a job on web then you should check these eight best jobs search which provides you the best opportunity to work according to your skills.

usa

USA.gov

When you enter in USA.com you feel like a big way heading for you to USA. Go to its home page click on Jobs and Education section and then on Government jobs. You will find many job sections that will help you how to work.

Monster

Monster.com

Monster.com is providing me a good deal and I have been working on it from several years. You can find your work by your location, keywords. Monster has many sections of jobs like networking boards, searching, and online posting.

careerbuilder

CareerBuilder.com

CareerBuilder offers you the skill to find a job, post a resume, create job alerts, get job advice and job resources, look up job fairs, and much more on the web. This is a truly immense job search engine that offers a lot of good resources to the job searcher; I especially understand the list of job search communities.

dice

Dice.com

Dice.com provides you only technology jobs. It provides you a space for finding the main position for which you are looking.

indeed

Indeed.com

Indeed.com is also a very firm search engine. It has a vast networking job area. You can post your resume here and easily will get a job of your profession. I have found that ‘indeed’ gives you more jobs than any other site.

craigslist

Craigslist.com

There are all sorts of attractive jobs available on Craigslist. Just find your towns look under Jobs, and then look under your job category. Non-profit, systems, government, writing, etc. jobs are all represented here. One Craigslist caveat: because this is a free marketplace, some of the jobs posted at Craigslist are not legal (the vast majorities are, however). Use vigilance and common sense when replying to job listings on Craigslist.

linkedin

LinkedIn.com

LinkedIn.com combines the better of two worlds: the ability to rub the Internet for jobs with its job search engine, and the opportunity to work with like-minded friends and individuals to expand your job search. LinkedIn’s job postings are of the highest quality, and if you are connected to someone who already knows about that particular job, than it will be vey easy for you to work on it.

SimplyHired

SimplyHired.com

It is the best job engine because of its Simply Fired contest. It provides you an exclusive experience by your interest. It also gives you to do the job of your own choice and each section has a detailed profile.

Learning to Blog? Seven Blogs You Should Have in Your Feed

A list of seven blogs that should be in your feed if you are learning to blog and wish to become more successful.

The first few months of your blog are the most crucial. If you don’t see the success you are looking for you may consider dropping your newest hobby. You may also be struggling to successfully monetize your blog after it’s been established. This is a list of 7 simply amazing blogs that you should have in your feed if you are looking to improve your knowledge of blogging.

 1.     Blogger Noob

This is one of my favorite blogs for making money online. This blog consistently publishes two to four posts a day. Generally they aren’t long ongoing posts however they are rich in information. There are also many contests going on here. It seems as though just as one ends, another starts. All prizes are paid for by him with his earnings. These earnings aren’t small and you will learn about successful ways of monetizing your site with affiliates and personal ad sales by reading his articles about making money online.

   Can t Get Rich

This is another one of my long time subscribed blogs. This blog started out as a blog telling you why you can not make money online. He talks about how to improve your blog, yet in the end his blog is starting to make money. He teaches you the patience you’ll need to survive in the blogging world along with many success stories that may give you ideas for your own.

  Caroline Middlebrook

This personal blog is one of the most inspirational ones. This blog isn’t meant to make her money, but to tell her readers about her story. To tell about how she quit her job, and is a full time blogger. She informs you of the steps needed to create a successful blog, along with informing you of the different ways she makes money and how you do it. I like this blog because she doesn’t hold information to herself. Her goal is to help you.

4.     Blogger Unleashed

This is a very well established blog receiving a high amount of traffic. While he may not have time to respond to your emails asking for help, I can bet he has your question answered in an article. Unlike most blog sites, he has a very neat and well constructed archive making it actually possible to look at older posts. He covers a wide variety of content. Things like monetizing your blog, creating content, getting your site noticed, and many other key pieces of information you’ll need to become successful.

5.     The University Kid

This is a rather encouraging blog. It’s an extremely successful blog written by a 16 year old. The blog focuses on obtaining RSS Subscribers and how this can help to your blogs monetization. The downside to this site is that I cannot find much of an archive for older posts. If you wish to read his content you will have to page through the older posts which may be helpful if you’re not looking for something in particular. Nonetheless this blog is full of useful information about receiving traffic.

6.     Tyler Cruz

Cruz is the blogger of one of the most popular learn to blog sites out there. I tend to stay away from the larger sized blogs simply because once they succeed they no longer strive to provide the useful posts the beginners will write. Tyler is an exception. 1,400 RSS subscribers strong and growing he continues to deliver high quality content about monetizing your blog, and posts that are the most useful to a very beginner blogger. Simply because most of his posts are geared towards getting you a very quick start.

7.     Entrepreneurs Journey

This is a successful blog by a successful blogger. The blogger is named Yaro Starak and he is a professional blogger. He had made over $100,000 blogging in a single year. This is no feat easily accomplished. He gives you useful information about search engine optimization, blog traffic, personal development, and how to earn money using affiliate accounts. This may not help you on your blog during your first few weeks, but once your blog gets a good start, this blog will help improve every aspect of blogging.

Blogging is not an easy task. You must satisfy your audience with high quality posts on a frequent basis. If you cannot do this, blogging may not be for you. The most popular RSS Subscriber would be Google’s. Simply sign up for a free iGoogle account and you will be able to display your feed on your Google homepage. This will allow you to check for new articles every time you sign on. I’m always looking for new blogs; if you can recommend any new ones for me they’d be much appreciated.

Internet Based Businesses – Take Your Future Into Your Own Hands

Starting an internet based business has become a best for abounding bodies in today’s animated business world. This is barefaced because the internet can be an accomplished best for those who are attractive for added airy lifestyle. Accepting beforehand business acquaintance in acceptable offline apple can accomplish this best alike easier.

If you are adversity from the unemployment rates, it could be time to booty you’re approaching into your own easily and see if there is a befalling out there that could change your life.
The key to award the adapted internet business is to analyze every befalling that comes your way fully. You appetite to be able afore starting any business. You can abstain authoritative mistakes by investigating anniversary befalling that you are absorbed in. Eventually you may appetite to become complex in added than one befalling and this can addition your assets alike further.
You can save a lot of money with your own business on the internet because you will assignment from home. You do not accept to use the gas you commonly use to get aback and alternating from work. You are able to eat at home and this can save you money every day. Also, if you do not accept to shop for accouterment that is assignment appropriate, you can save a abundant accord of money as well.

If you accept some accurate accomplishment you can use that as the foundation of your internet based business. You aloof charge to anticipate what affectionate of things you are acceptable at, or accept an acceptable ability of. If you are accepting an adamantine time award a skill, you can consistently attending at the role you played in the accumulated apple and conceivably you can action an accomplishment that you accept abstruse in the workforce.
Effective business is acute for any acknowledged business. That is why you charge to absorb best of your time acquirements how to advance your internet business the best able way. If no one knows who you are, it can be adamantine to accomplish any sales.
With able business planning you can get your business accepted and advance an acceptable reputation. Bodies’ alpha to apperceive you and assurance you. When you body a chump base, it wills advice you access your sales and this will best absolutely advice your basal line.
An internet based business is a abundant way to breach out of the restraints of the accumulated world. If you accept been complex in the workforce for too continued and charge to booty ascendancy of your life, starting your own business on the internet can advice you breach out and be amenable for your own future.